IM 355 Interactive Media Theories, Concepts, and Practices

Spring 2022

Modifications to MLA reference style

Modified MLA reference style

Follow the MLA style reference recommendations found at the Purdue site.


1) DO NOT include the word PRINT or WEB in your citation. I can tell by the form of and information in the citation whether the material is in print or on the web.

2) DO NOT underline titles as indicated in MLA. Underlining instructs the printer to "set this in italics." You can set your own italics. If MLA indicates underlining, set it in italics.

3) ALWAYS INCLUDE THE FULL URL REQUIRED TO FIND THE MATERIAL. Whenever possible, use a "permalink" or "static URL." Many of the BU databases offer that choice once you've found the full text article. DO NOT MERELY REFER ME TO THE FRONT DOOR OF THE DATABASE, EXPECTING ME TO DO THE SEARCH. If the URL you give me will not take me to the materials, follow the instructions in the "formula for making a permalink to full text database materials" announcement file in resources on Sakai. If all else fails, include a .pdf of the file (either via email, with your outline, or added to the submission of the rough draft or final paper assignment on Sakai--there's a place there to attach additional documents).

4) Whenever possible, include the DATE OF PUBLICATION TO THE WEB.

5) DO NOT include the date you accessed the material. I can always assume that you've accessed it while working on assignments for this class. "Date accessed" is an important indication for materials with a long shelf life; it's not relevant in this class project situation.

6) Do not use/cite material that is available only by a paid subscription that our library does not have.

7) Be sure to cite the material as you actually looked at/had in hand. That is, if you've seen an online, full text version of an article published in a (print) journal, the reference is going to cite the online location AND the normal journal information so that I can not only see what the item is, but I can also see where you got it (and can go there). Do not cite material you only saw online as though you held the print version.

8) You will need to add (at the end of the citation) an indication of WHERE on the webpage the material appears. You may do this either by including the first few words in the targeted material as a line of text within quotation marks OR you can list the paragraph number where the material appears, in brackets. If you use a phrase, be sure it is unique to the passage you've cited so that when I search it on the page, I see the material you are using. In cases of full text articles (that don't look like web pages) you can just cite the proper page number in the article.

9) Do NOT use NUMBERING with sections/headings. Use indentation and changes to fonts.

10) Include publishers only for books. Do not include the publishers of other materials. New York Times does NOT take a second New York Times (designating the publisher). Wired does not take Conde Nast (the publisher), etc.

11) Do not include the name of the database or database service for full-text online materials.

12) Don't add terminal periods at the end of URLs.

13) Please do not make URLs active. DE-activate all URLs.

14) Doi addresses are NOT URLs. doi addresses direct us to material that then indicates URL for the material.

Goals and Objectives
(A) Concept Exams

(B) Text Reading

(C) Concept Application
Notes & Discussions
(D) 3-part-Research Writing Project
(E) Extra Credit (F) Grading Special Considerations
Concepts Schedule IM 355 Homepage
© Ed Lamoureux, 2022